CAPAS-Teen (initiated 2019)

CAPAS-Teen is a culturally adapted preventive intervention based on the CAPAS and CAPAS-Enhanced programs for low-income immigrant Latino/a families with adolescents. The program, designed by Dr. Ruben Parra-Cardona and colleagues, was tested for its acceptability with parents (Parra-Cardona et al., 2019). Parents reported high satisfaction with GenerationPMTO core components. The importance was emphasized to incorporate within the intervention relevant cultural values and experiences, such as discrimination experiences. Funding: NIDA Grants K01DA036747 to Dr. Parra Cardona and K05DA015799 and T32DA021129 To Dr. James Anthony Parra-Cardona, R., López-Zerón, G., Leija, S. G., Maas, M. K., Villa, M., Zamudio, E., . . . Domenech Rodríguez, M. M. (2019). A culturally adapted intervention for Mexican-origin parents of adolescents: The need to overtly address culture and discrimination in evidence-based practice. Family Process, 58, 334-352. doi:doi:10.1111/famp.12381

CAPAS Mexico City (initiated 2009)

TCAPAS-Mx is an adaptation of the CAPAS intervention that grew out of a collaboration among ISII and ISII-trained clinicians in the US and Mexico, a cultural adaptation specialist, and a graphic artist in Mexico City (Baumann, Domenech Rodriguez, Amador Buenabad, Forgatch, & Parra-Cardona, 2014). The intervention was carried out in Mexico City and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial of a combined program for parents and children carried (Amador Buenabad et al., 2019). Caregivers receiving the intervention reported reductions in child externalizing behavior and improvements in parenting skills relative to those in the control condition. Amador Buenabad, N. G., Sánchez Ramos, R., Schwartz, S., Gutiérrez López, M. L., Díaz Juárez, A. D., Ortiz Gallegos, A. B., . . . Villatoro Velázquez, J. A. (2019). Cluster Randomized Trial of a Multicomponent School-Based Program in Mexico to Prevent Behavioral Problems and Develop Social Skills in Children. Child & Youth Care Forum. doi:10.1007/s10566-019-09535-3 Baumann, A. A., Domenech Rodriguez, M. M., Amador Buenabad, N., Forgatch, M. S., & Parra-Cardona, J. R. (2014). Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTOTM) in Mexico City: Integrating cultural adaptation activities in an implementation model. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 21, 32-47. doi:10.1111/cpsp.12059

CAPAS Utah (initiated 2003)

CAPAS, the first adaptation of GenerationPMTO for Spanish-speaking families, was produced by Dr. Melanie Domenech Rodríguez, a bilingual, bicultural Latina and cultural adaptation specialist. Based on Parenting through Change (PTC), the parent group format of GenerationPMTO, CAPAS provides eight group sessions that cover the core components of the model framed in a culturally relevant manner. The first application of the CAPAS was conducted in a rural community in Utah for Latino/a families (Domenech Rodríguez, Baumann, & Schwartz, 2011). CAPAS has served as the basis for further adaptations for Latino/a families in the US and in Latin America. See separate descriptions for these projects on this page. Domenech Rodríguez, M. M., Baumann, A. A., & Schwartz, A. L. (2011). Cultural adaptation of an evidence based intervention: From theory to practice in a Latino/a community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 47, 170-186. doi:10.1007/s10464-010-9371-4

CAPAS Enhanced (initiated 2007)

CAPAS-Enhanced: Strengthening Latino/a Families by Enhancing Parenting Practices. This program was developed and led by Rubén Parra-Cardona, in collaboration with Melanie Domenech Rodríguez, Marion Forgatch and community leaders in Detroit, Michigan. Parra-Cardona is a bi-lingual, bi-cultural Latino, cultural adaptation specialist. The 12-week preventive parent group intervention based on CAPAS (Domenech Rodríguez, 2008) was provided to low-income Latino/a immigrant families in Michigan. Additions to the CAPAS adaptation include material addressing parenting as a Latino/a family, immigration, coping with racism, and becoming a bicultural family. Central to this work was the training of community leaders as parenting interventionists. In an RCT comparing two levels of cultural adaptation with a wait-list control condition, findings revealed an 87% overall retention rate of participating families, including a retention rate of 85% for fathers, considerably higher than rates reported in other community-based studies with underserved Latinos/as. Compared to parents in the control condition, intervention parents reported significant improvements in child internalizing behaviors such as sadness and withdrawn behaviors, with fathers reporting the highest improvements in externalizing behaviors such as rule-breaking (Parra-Cardona et al., 2017). Funded by: Award R34MH087678 from the National Institute of Mental Health with supplemental funding by the MSU Office of the Vice-President for Research and Graduate Studies, the MSU College of Social Science, and the MSU Department of Health and Human Development. Domenech Rodríguez, M. M. (2008). Criando con Amor: Promoviendo Armonía y Superación [PMTO parent group manual]. Logan, UT: Utah State University. Parra-Cardona, J. R. (2019). Healing through parenting: An intervention delivery and process of change model developed with low-income Latina/o immigrant families. Family Process, 58(1), 34–52.

Reunification Project in Monterrey, Mexico – GenerationPMTO adaptation for parents seeking reunification with children in the context of child maltreatment (initiated 2008)

This project was initiated by Drs. Elizabeth Wieling, Elizabeth Aquilar and Ruben Parra-Cardona in collaboration with CIFAC ( and Dif Sistema Nacional Para El Desarrollo Integral de la Familia. The intervention was based on an adaption of PTC and CAPAS for families who had lost a child to the state after allegations of child maltreatment and who were seeking reunification. Agency social workers and psychologists were trained in the model over a period of one year and a pilot project was implemented with a group of mothers. Funding: Dif Sistema Nacional Para El Desarrollo Integral de la Familia, Monterrey, Mexico. Parra-Cardona, R., Aguilar, E., Wieling, E., Forgatch, M., Domenech-Rodriquez, M., Morton, A., & Fitzgerald, H. (2014). Closing the gap between two countries: Feasibility of dissemination of an evidence-based parenting intervention in México. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12098

Karen Refugee Mothers in Minnesota – Enhancing Family Connections in Karen Refugees (initiated 2016)

This was a feasibility study focused on adapting Parenting through Change (PTC) for Karen refugee mothers resettled to Minnesota. The adaptation was developed by Dr. Elizabeth Wieling, in collaboration with Drs. Jaime Ballard, Chris Mehus, and ISII (Ballard, Wieling, & Forgatch, 2017). The intervention expanded on the previous Enhancing Family Connection adaptation for war-affected parents exposed to complex traumatic stress in Uganda (Wieling et al., 2015a; Wieling et al., 2015b) to include tailoring for resettlement and acculturation stressors. Modifications in the curriculum included emphasis on celebrating culturally specific family legacies and attention to cross-cultural variations in family/community parenting values and practices. Parenting materials were made accessible for non-literate populations by creating pictorial depictions of GenerationPMTO parenting concepts and tools. Funding: Grant-in-Aid, University of Minnesota. Ballard, J., Wieling, E., & Forgatch, M. (2017). Feasibility of implementation of a parenting intervention with resettled Karen refugees from Burma. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 44(2), 220-234. doi: 10.1111/jmft.12286

Northern Uganda – Jingo Kupe I Dog Gang (Enhancing Family Connection in Northern Uganda) (initiated 2012)

This adaptation of Parenting through Change (PTC) was developed by Dr. Elizabeth Wieling in collaboration with European, Ugandan, and American colleagues (Wieling et al., 2015). The intervention was tailored for mothers affected by psychological trauma related to war, organized violence, and disaster. Modifications in the curriculum address cross-cultural variations in family/community parenting values and practices. Parenting materials were made accessible for non-literate populations by creating pictorial depictions of GenerationPMTO parenting concepts and tools. Wieling, E., Mehus, C., Mollerherm, J., Neuner, F., Laura, A., & Catani, C. (2015). Assessing the feasibility of providing a parenting intervention for war affected families in Northern Uganda. Family and Community Health., 38, 252-267. doi:10.1097/FCH.0000000000000064

SPARE (initiated 2019)

SPARE (STRENGTHENING PARENTING AMONG REFUGEES IN EUROPE) is a program aimed at strengthening parenting skills in refugee parents with children in pre- and elementary schools. The goal is to support successful and healthy family adjustment and prevent problems in the process of resettlement. To address the special challenges that refugee families face, SPARE highlights trauma components such as mindfulness and emotional coaching to adapt to possible posttraumatic stress reactions that can influence parenting practices. SPARE is offered to parents in a group format consisting of 12 sessions. Each session lasts for two hours. Parents meet with specialists in the program (trainers) as well as link-workers who help build bridges between the different languages and cultures.